Research Associate

Christoph Lutz forscht am Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsmanagement als wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter zu sozialen Medien und deren gesellschaftlichen Auswirkungen, Privatsphäre, der digitalen Spaltung und politischer Kommunikation. In seiner Dissertation beschäftigte er sich mit der gesellschaftlichen Strukturierung der Online Beteiligung in Deutschland.

KONTAKT

Christoph Lutz, Dr. oec.
Research Associate  
Institut für Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft                                     
Universität Leipzig | Burgstraße 21 | D-04109 Leipzig
Tel.: 0341 97 35047 | christoph.lutz@uni-leipzig.de

SPRECHZEITEN

Nach Vereinbarung.

FORSCHUNGSSCHWERPUNKTE & THEMEN

Online Kommunikation, Soziale Medien, Privacy, Partizipation, Politische Kommunikation

Christoph Lutz & Christian Pieter Hoffmann
The Dark Side of Online Participation: Exploring Non- and Negative Participation
Lutz, C., & Hoffmann, C. P. (2016). The Dark Side of Online Participation: Exploring Non- and Negative Participation. Extended abstract presented at the 2016 Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR) Annual Conference. Berlin, October 2016.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Academic Social Capital? Relating Centrality on ResearchGate to Established Impact Measures
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C., & Meckel, C. (2016). Academic Social Capital? Relating Centrality on ResearchGate to Established Impact Measures. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management (AOM). Anaheim, CA, USA, August 2016.

Christoph Lutz, Eliane Bucher, Christian Fieseler & Christian Pieter Hoffmann
The Sharing Paradox: The Role of Privacy in the Sharing Economy.
Lutz, C., Bucher, E., Fieseler, C., & Hoffmann, C. P. (2016). The Sharing Paradox: The Role of Privacy in the Sharing Economy. Paper presented at the 2016 EGOS Colloquium. Naples, Italy, July 2016.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Robin Poëll
Blasting and Posturing: A Gender Divide in Young Facebook Users’ Online Political Participation.
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C., & Poëll, R. (2016). Blasting and Posturing: A Gender Divide in Young Facebook Users’ Online Political Participation. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the International Communication Association (ICA). Fukuoka, Japan, June 2016.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Robin Poëll
Blasting and Posturing: A Gender Divide in Young Facebook Users’ Online Political Participation.
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C., & Poëll, R. (2016). Blasting and Posturing: A Gender Divide in Young Facebook Users’ Online Political Participation. Beitrag zur 61. Jahrestagung der Deutschen
Gesellschaft für Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (DGPuK). Leipzig, März 2016.



Christian Pieter Hoffmann & Christoph Lutz
Online Non-Participation : Exploring Abstinence from Participatory Internet Uses
Hoffmann, C. P. & Lutz, C. (2016). Online Non-Participation : Exploring Abstinence
from Participatory Internet Uses. Beitrag zur 61. Jahrestagung der Deutschen
Gesellschaft für Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (DGPuK). Leipzig, März 2016.


Social media have been described as participatory media, because they facilitate the publication and sharing of content by lay audiences. Increasingly, research is differentiating forms of "online participation" in social domains as diverse as business, politics, culture or education. At the same time, research into the social stratification of Internet use ("digital divide") has triggered a lively debate on causes for non-participatory Internet uses. Most recently, it was recognized that digital non-participation can vary not only in causation but also in significance, as it may signify either an active or a passive stance and user intention. Active forms of non-participation could include acts of boycotts and obfuscation, such as the use of anonymization techniques. By contrast, passive non-participation occurs when individuals do not participate for a lack of skills, interest, or time. To differentiate the terminology of online non-participation among German Internet users and explore distinct causes, the authors have conducted a qualitative study based on focus groups with a diverse selection of Internet users.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Two Paths to Adoption : Cognitive and Affective Drivers of Social Media Adoption in Public Administration
Hoffmann C. P., Lutz, C. & Meckel, M. (2016). Two Paths to Adoption : Cognitive and Affective Drivers of Social Media Adoption in Public Administration. Beitrag zur 61. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (DGPuK). Leipzig, März 2016.

Various studies have explored the impact of new media on the interaction of governments and their citizenry (e-government) or the engagement of citizens in questions of governance (e-governance). Social media can make participation in public governance logistically feasible by providing access to a wide range of information as well as online conversations. More and more public administrations strive to employ social media for citizen interaction. Yet, little is known about the necessary preconditions of professional social media use in public administration.
In this study, we focus on public administration employees' stance towards social media as one important element in the successful implementation of social media projects. Applying insights from technology acceptance research and based on a quantitative survey among the employees of a German state administration, we explore individual-level antecedents of social media use intentions. We distinguish two routes of adoption - a cognitive and an affective one - and find that the affective route is more pronounced. This points to the hedonic status of social media as an information technology and coincides with information systems previous literature.

Christoph Lutz, Christian Pieter Hoffmann & Miriam Meckel
Online Serendipity: A Contextual Differentiation of Antecedents and Outcomes.
Lutz, C., Hoffmann, C. P., & Meckel, C. (2016). Online Serendipity: A Contextual Differentiation of Antecedents and Outcomes. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. Online First. DOI: 10.1002/asi.23771

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Giulia Ranzini
Privacy Cynicism : An Approach to Understanding the Institutional Privacy Paradox
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C. & Ranzini, G. (2015). Privacy Cynicism : An Approach to Understanding the Institutional Privacy Paradox. Paper presented at Amsterdam Privacy Conference. Netherlands, Amsterdam, October 2015.

Previous research on online privacy has identified a disparity between Internet users' privacy concerns and actual privacy protection behavior. Given the distinction between social and institutional privacy concerns, this "privacy paradox" appears especially pronounced in the context of institutional privacy threats. A number of studies attempt to explain the privacy paradox based on either user trust, lack of risk awareness or the privacy calculus thesis. In this study, we argue that none of these approaches satisfactorily explain the institutional privacy paradox. Instead, we propose that users faced with institutional privacy threats may develop an attitude we term privacy cynicism. Privacy cynicism serves as a cognitive coping mechanism allowing users to take advantage of online services despite privacy concerns. Based on focus groups conducted among German Internet users and an initial explorative student survey, we define the privacy paradox construct and propose an initial measurement instrument.

Christoph Lutz & Christian Pieter Hoffmann
Connected for Success? : How Network Centrality on ResearchGate Relates to Bibliometrics, Altmetrics and Webometrics
Lutz, C. & Hoffmann, C. P. (2015). Connected for Success? : How Network Centrality on ResearchGate Relates to Bibliometrics, Altmetrics and Webometrics. XXXV INSNA Sunbelt Conference. Brighton, 2015.

Academic social network sites (SNS) are booming. A recent large-scale survey published in Nature indicates that almost 90 percent of researchers in science and engineering and more than 70 percent in the social sciences, arts and humanities are aware of ResearchGate - next to Academia.edu the largest academic SNS with more than 6 million users. However, only limited research has been carried out on academic SNS. Although a vivid community creates and implements alternative measures of scientific impact with social media data, little use has been made of the potential of academic SNS as a data source. Consequently, few studies employ person-based metrics that cover users' social capital in the form of structural indicators and network statistics (centrality, density, homophily, clustering). This contribution draws on extensive data from ResearchGate to address this issue and add a relational component to altmetrics research. It includes a follower/following network of 302 nodes on ResearchGate: the complete faculty of a Swiss public university who are members on this academic SNS as of early 2014. We describe the overall network with classical metrics of social network analysis and compute the centrality of each individual node. Results indicate low density, high institutional homophily, a skewed degree distribution and many isolates. We then compare the structural properties of individual nodes with other metrics of influence. To do so, the network data is complemented with detailed attribute data, such as department affiliation, gender and position within the university hierarchy. Moreover, we collect researchers' activity on ResearchGate, bibliometric information, webometrics and altmetrics, i.e., the prominence of their publications on general and specific social media platforms. We evaluate whether the relational aspect of influence in the form network centrality correlates with activity, bibliometric, webometric and almetrics indicators as well as personal attributes. Significant and intermediate correlations between activity and centrality are found, while the correlations between centrality and bibliometric as well as altmetrics are weaker but still significant. No significant correlations between webometrics (coverage of publications on general social media platforms, like Twitter and Facebook) and network centrality occur. The analysis suggests that network centrality is distinct but correlated with (bibliometric) output metrics and therefore worthy of inclusion in future altmetrics studies.

Christoph Lutz, Christian Pieter Hoffmann & Miriam Meckel
Antecedents and Outcomes of Online Serendipity : Contextual Differences Between Online Services
Lutz, C., Hoffmann, C. P. & Meckel, M. (2015). Antecedents and Outcomes of Online Serendipity : Contextual Differences Between Online Services. Paper presented at the 65th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association. San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 2015.

The abundance of online information necessitates the increasingly selective filtering of content for convenient user experiences. Critics worry that algorithmic filtering based on homophily leads to a loss of diversity. In turn, "serendipity", positive experiences due to the encounter of surprising content, is touted as an antidote to overly polished, repetitive use experiences. Little is known, however, about the antecedents and effects of online serendipity. Studies suggest that these antecedents and effects vary by online context, yet few have analyzed this empirically. We identify antecedents of online serendipity using a survey of German Internet users. We then differentiate the proposed serendipity model according to three online contexts: shopping, information and social networks. We find that online serendipity is indeed context-specific. While in the shopping and information context serendipity does not lead to satisfaction with the user experience, on social network sites it has a significant positive effect.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann & Christoph Lutz
The impact of online media on stakeholder engagement and the governance of corporations
Hoffmann, C. P. & Lutz, C. (2015). The impact of online media on stakeholder engagement and the governance of corporations. Journal of Public Affairs, 15(2), 163–174.

Online tools such as social media provide new opportunities for citizens and stakeholder groups to be informed, identify common interests, express and share opinions and demands, organize, and coordinate interventions. Therefore, the Internet could be expected to increase stakeholder engagement in corporate affairs and facilitate good governance. In order to provide an overview of current findings on the impact of online media on governance and stakeholder engagement, we conduct a systematic literature review. Our analysis reveals five topical categories of inquiry. We analyze studies from the field of business participation and find a strong bias towards consumer engagement and marketing issues. Only few studies are found to critically explore the effect of online media on power and value distribution between corporations and stakeholders. We then turn to the more established field of political and civic participation in order to further analyze antecedents, forms, and outcomes of online engagement in civic affairs, and derive a framework for future research.

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Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz, Miriam Meckel & Giulia Ranzini
Diversity by Choice : Applying a Social Cognitive Perspective to the Role of Public Service Media in the Digital Age
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C., Meckel, M. & Ranzini, G. (2015) Diversity by
Choice : Applying a Social Cognitive Perspective to the Role of Public Service Media in the
Digital Age. International Journal of Communication, 9(1), 1360-1381.


Hopes for a new abundance of diverse media content have long been tied to the rise of the Internet. Ensuring diversity remains a fundamental objective of media policy. However, media policy is still largely focused on public service media. In this article, we introduce a new theoretical perspective to inform media policy, focusing on the concept of diversity experience and users' motivation, awareness, and ability to seek diverse content in a transforming media environment. We argue that our understanding of and regulatory approaches to media pluralism must be adapted to technological advances. Based on social cognitive theory, we propose an extension of the diversity debate by considering user cognition. We analyze challenges to users' diversity experiences on a motivational, perceptual, and capability level. Given the (over)abundance of content available online, users must be willing and able to seek out diverse and serendipitous information. We derive a user-centric approach to media pluralism and diversity. Based on this framework, we outline criteria for changing the role of public service media in the digital age to focus on empowering users to actually experience media diversity.

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Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
A relational altmetric? Network centrality on ResearchGate as an indicator of scientific impact
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C. & Meckel, M. (2016). A relational altmetric?: Network centrality on ResearchGate as an indicator of scientific impact. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67(4), 765–775.

Social media are becoming increasingly popular in scientific communication. A range of platforms, such as academic social networking sites (SNS), are geared specifically towards the academic community. Proponents of the altmetrics approach have pointed out that new media allow for new avenues of scientific impact assessment. Traditional impact measures based on bibliographic analysis have long been criticized for overlooking the relational dynamics of scientific impact. We therefore propose an application of social network analysis to researchers' interactions on an academic social networking site to generate potential new metrics of scientific impact. Based on a case study conducted among a sample of Swiss management scholars, we analyze how centrality measures derived from the participants' interactions on the academic SNS ResearchGate relate to traditional, offline impact indicators. We find that platform engagement, seniority, and publication impact contribute to members' indegree and eigenvector centrality on the platform, but less so to closeness or betweenness centrality. We conclude that a relational approach based on social network analyses of academic SNS, while subject to platform-specific dynamics, may add richness and differentiation to scientific impact assessment.

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Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Digital Natives or Digital Immigrants? : The Impact of User Characteristics on Online Trust
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C. & Meckel, M. (2015). Digital Natives or Digital Immigrants?: The Impact of User Characteristics on Online Trust. Journal of Management Information Systems, 31(3), 138–171.

Previous research suggests that user characteristics such as web experience and demographics may affect online trust. Drawing on social cognitive theory, we explore the moderating effect of user characteristics on online trust. Based on a survey of German Internet users, we differentiate three groups by age, web experience, and education. We term these groups digital natives, digital immigrants, and naturalized digitals. A multiple-group analysis reveals significant differences in trust formation, particularly in the cues considered in the evaluation of online services. Whereas a large user base inspires confidence in digital natives, naturalized digitals are more geared toward familiar brands and recommendations. Digital immigrants most critically weigh the risks of a transaction against its benefits. We argue that specific user characteristics are associated with distinct cognitive schemata, implying distinct interests and evaluations in online transactions. Online services should differentiate their signaling efforts according to the targeted customer group.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Content creation on the Internet : A social cognitive perspective on the participation divide
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C., & Meckel, M. (2014). Content creation on the Internet: A social cognitive perspective on the participation divide. Information, Communication & Society, 18(6), 696–716.

Sociodemographic variables are held to impact Internet users' willingness and ability to productively use online media. This effect can create a ‘participation divide' between distinct user groups. Recently, studies have enhanced our understanding of the participation divide by differentiating types of online content creation. They found that sociodemographics may only affect specific forms of online participation. We suggest that social cognitive theory (SCT) helps explain why and how sociodemographic variables influence different forms of online participation. Based on SCT, we analyze the mediating effect of two cognitive constructs, self-efficacy and privacy concerns, on different types of online content creation. We conduct a survey among German Internet users and apply structural equation modeling to compare three distinct theoretical models. We find that considering the mediating effects of cognitive constructs, based on SCT, improves our understanding of which sociodemographic variables affect which type of online content creation - and why.

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Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Robin Poëll
DIVSI-Studie: Beteiligung im Internet : Wer beteiligt sich wie?
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C. & Poëll, R. (2015). DIVSI-Studie: Beteiligung im Internet. Wer beteiligt sich wie? Zwischenbericht. Hamburg : Deutsches Institut für Vertrauen und Sicherheit im Internet (DIVSI).

Zwischenbericht - Das DIVSI-Forschungsprogramm "Beteiligung im Internet" untersucht Voraussetzungen für sowie Formen und Folgen von Beteiligung im Internet. Nachdem in einem ersten Schritt die wissenschaftliche Literatur zum Thema analysiert wurde, wendet sich die vorliegende Studie empirisch der Nutzersicht zu. Basierend auf Online- und Offline-Fokusgruppen mit etwa 100 Vertretern der DIVSI Internet-Milieus wird erkundet, was "Beteiligung im Internet" im Alltag bedeutet, in welchen Bereichen sie stattfindet und welche Aktivitäten sie umfasst. Vorteile werden herausgearbeitet und Hürden beleuchtet.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Organizational Antecedents of Social Media Adoption in Public Administration : Considering the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C. & Meckel, M. (2014). Organizational Antecedents of Social Media Adoption in Public Administration : Considering the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation. Paper presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management. USA, Philadelphia, August 2014.

Research increasingly explores the opportunities social media provide to public sector organizations. Yet, only few empirical studies have addressed the organizational antecedents of social media adoption in this particular context. Based on innovation diffusion literature, we propose a number of organizational antecedents of social media adoption in public administration. At the same time, we find that - due to high levels of formalization and centralization - formal organizational characteristics may exhibit little variability in the public administration context. We therefore suggest that the explanatory power of the proposed model could be increased by considering an intermediate construct capturing the organization's predisposition to explore new media. From current innovation literature, we derive Entrepreneurial Orientation as a potential mediator of social media adoption. Based on a survey among 2'092 employees of a German state-level administration, we test both an unmediated and a partially mediated model of organizational antecedents of social media adoption. We find that Leadership support, Employee autonomy, Bureaucratization, and Social Influence affect social media adoption. Taking the mediating effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation into consideration increases the explanatory power of the proposed model.

Christoph Lutz, Christian Pieter Hoffmann & Miriam Meckel
Beyond just politics : A systematic literature review of online participation
Lutz, C., Hoffmann, C. P. & Meckel, M. (2014). Beyond just politics: A systematic literature review of online participation. First Monday, 19(7).

This paper presents a systematic literature review of the current state-of-research on online participation. The review draws on four databases and is guided by the application of six topical search terms. The analysis strives to differentiate distinct forms of online participation and to identify salient discourses within each research field. We find that research on online participation is highly segregated into specific sub-discourses that reflect disciplinary boundaries. Research on online political participation and civic engagement is identified as the most prominent and extensive research field. Yet research on other forms of participation, such as cultural, business, education and health participation, provides distinct perspectives and valuable insights. We outline both field-specific and common findings and derive propositions for future research.

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Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz, Miriam Meckel & Robin Poëll
Spiral of Silence 2.0 : Impression Management and Political Self-Censorsip on Facebook
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C., Meckel, M. & Poëll, R. (2014) Spiral of Silence 2.0 : Impression Management and Political Self-Censorsip on Facebook. Beitrag zur 59. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (DGPuK). Passau, Mai 2014.


Do social media strengthen or weaken citizen's political participation? Authors have found that, while lowering the cost of political engagement, social media may also foster the fragmentation of audiences and contribute to an increasingly polarized political discourse. This study applies the "spiral of silence" theory to political discourse among digital natives on the social networking platform Facebook. We hypothesize that users perceiving their online network as politically heterogeneous will be more likely to engage in self-censorship and limit their political self-expression. Previous studies have found that impression management, i.e., communication behaviour geared towards projecting a socially desirable self, increases engagement in online social networks. Accordingly, we hypothesize that users geared towards impression management will be more engaged in online political discourse. We test these hypotheses based on a survey among German Facebook users under the age of 30 and find that network heterogeneity does indeed increase political self-censorship while impression management increases users' willingness to speak out.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Content Creation on the Internet : A Social Cognitive Perspective on the Participation Divide
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C. & Meckel, M. (2014). Content Creation on the Internet : A Social Cognitive Perspective on the Participation Divide. Paper presented at the 64th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association. USA, Seattle, May 2014.

Socio-economic status (SES) is held to impact Internet users' willingness and ability to productively use online media. This effect can create a "participation divide" between distinct user groups. Recently, studies have enhanced our understanding of the participation divide by differentiating types of online content creation. They found that SES may only affect specific forms of online participation. We suggest that social cognitive theory (SCT) helps explain why and how socio-demographics influence different forms of online participation. Based on SCT, we analyze the mediating effect of two cognitive constructs, self-efficacy and privacy concerns, on different types of online content creation. We conduct a survey among German Internet users and apply structural equation modeling in order to compare three distinct theoretical models. We find that considering the mediating effects of cognitive constructs, based in SCT, improves our understanding of which socio-demographic variables affect which type of online content creation - and why.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Lea Aeschlimann & Christoph Lutz
A Digital Divide in Political Participation : Exploring Antecedents and Effects of Online Political Participation
Hoffmann, C. P., Aeschlimann, L. & Lutz, C. (2014). A Digital Divide in Political Participation : Exploring Antecedents and Effects of Online Political Participation. Paper presented at the 64th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association. USA, Seattle, May 2014.

Early on, optimistic observers speculated that the Internet might bolster political participation, as it provides access to a wealth of information and facilitates political conversation and association. Yet, digital divide research was able to show that not all citizens benefit equally from the opportunities provided by new media. A divide in Internet use and engagement might therefore propound pre-existing inequalities in political participation. Based on a survey conducted among Internet users in Germany, we analyze the effect of Internet use on online and offline political participation. We test for socio-demographic antecedents of participation. Finally, based on social cognitive theory, we analyze the scope and form of the digital divide in political participation. We find that Internet use simultaneously amplifies and mitigates pre-existing participation divides, depending on the socio-demographic group under consideration.

Christoph Lutz & Christian Pieter Hoffmann
Towards a Broader Understanding of the Participation Divide(s)
Lutz, C. & Hoffmann, C. P. (2014). Towards a Broader Understanding of the Participation Divide(s). Paper presented at the 64th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association. USA, Seattle, May 2014.

Online participation is a thriving topic in communication and Internet research. One prominent area within research on online participation focuses on participation divides. Participation divides are frequently understood as social inequalities in online content creation. To create a broader understanding of participation domains, and thereby participation divides, we conduct a systematic literature review. Analyzing 192 journal articles and conference proceedings, we identify central definitions, antecedents, and outcomes of online participation. Most notably, we detect five distinct domains of online participation: political & civic, economic/business, cultural, health-related, and educational participation. Surveying all five domains, we find some noteworthy differences in the respective participation divides. This position paper interprets the participitation divides in each domain, derives propositions for future research and connects the findings to the overall topic of "Communication and the Good Life".

Miriam Meckel, Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Stephanie Grubenmann & Christoph Lutz
Zeitungen brauchen weiterhin Werbung
Meckel, M., Hoffmann, C. P., Grubenmann, S. & Lutz, C. (2014). Zeitungen brauchen weiterhin Werbung. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung 235, Nr. 109, S. 54.

Meinungen des Publikums zur kommerziellen Kommunikation in Informationsmedien

Robin Poëll, Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Political Engagement of Digital Natives on Facebook : The Moderating Role of Impression Management
Poëll, R., Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C. & Meckel, M. (2014). Political Engagement of Digital Natives on Facebook : The Moderating Role of Impression Management. Beitrag zur 40. Jahrestagung der
Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft SGKM. Schweiz, Zürich, April 2014.


This contribution addresses the moderating role of impression management on the relationship between online and offline political participation. It concentrates on young citizens in Switzerland and Germany aged 18-30. After a discussion of the slacktivism thesis as the theoretical backbone of the paper, we describe the dataset and present the method of analysis. Significant differences in political participation - both online and offline - as well as in impression management between Germany and Switzerland exist. Using linear regression models, we elaborate salient drivers of offline participation. Contradicting the slacktivism thesis, we do not find a weakening effect of different impression management techniques on the relationship between political participation on Facebook and offline participation forms, such as demonstrating. By contrast, certain impression management techniques strengthen the online-offline link, while others do not exert a moderating effect. Overall, young citizens in Germany and Switzerland seem to be able to transfer their political engagement on Facebook to offline settings, even when they reveal high levels of impression management. Political engagement on Facebook is not an isolated act of self-staging that fizzles out in the virtual sphere.

Miriam Meckel, Christoph Lutz & Christian Pieter Hoffmann
Wir sind drin!?
Meckel, M., Lutz, C. & Hoffmann, C. P. (2014). Wir sind drin!?. In: Der Tagesspiegel, Nr. 22008, S. 32.

Alle sind ständig im Internet, aus privaten, politischen und tausend anderen Gründen. Doch der Schein trügt. Höchste Zeit, mit den Mythen der Beteiligung aufzuräumen.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann & Christoph Lutz
The Potential of Academic Social Networks Sites for Scientific Impact Assessment
Hoffmann, C. P. & Lutz, C. (2014). The Potential of Academic Social Networks Sites for Scientific Impact Assessment. 1. Jahrestagung der Ad-Hoc-Gruppe "Wissenschaftskommunikation" der DGPuK. Zürich, 2014.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Impact Factor 2.0 : Applying Social Network Analysis to Scientific Impact Assessment
Hoffmann C. P., Lutz, C. & Meckel, M. (2014). Impact Factor 2.0 : Applying Social Network Analysis to Scientific Impact Assessment. Paper presented at the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS). Hawaii, Waikoloa, January 2014.

Social media are becoming increasingly popular in scientific communication. A range of platforms are geared specifically towards the academic community. Proponents of the altmetrics approach point out that these new media allow for new avenues of scientific impact assessment. Traditional impact measures based on bibliographic analysis have long been criticized for overlooking the relational dynamic of scientific impact. We therefore propose an application of social network analysis to researchers' interactions on an academic social networking site in order to generate new metrics of scientific impact. Based on a case study conducted among a sample of Swiss management scholars, we analyze how these new relational metrics relate to traditional, offline impact indicators as well as online communication activity and publication resonance. We conclude that a relational approach based on social network analysis may add richness and differentiation to scientific impact assessment.

Miriam Meckel, Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Robin Poëll
DIVSI-Studie zu Bereichen und Formen der Beteiligung im Internet
Meckel, M., Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C. & Poëll, R. (2014). DIVSI-Studie zu Bereichen und Formen der Beteiligung im Internet. Zwischenbericht. Hamburg : Deutsches Institut für Vertrauen und Sicherheit im Internet (DIVSI).

Zwischenbericht - Der Bericht präsentiert die Ergebnisse eines systematischen Literaturüberblicks zum Thema "Beteiligung im Internet" und schliesst damit die erste Projektphase des gleichnamigen Projekts in Zusammenarbeit mit DIVSI ab (Deutsches Institut für Vertrauen und Sicherheit im Internet). Zentrale Erkenntnisse zu fünf Formen oder Bereichen der Beteiligung im Netz werden erläutert: Beteiligung in der Politik, Beteiligung in der Wirtschaft, Beteiligung in der Kultur, Beteiligung in Gesundheitsfragen und Beteiligung in der Bildung.

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Miriam Meckel, Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Robin Poëll
Social Media Readiness in der Verwaltung : Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel der Verwaltung der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg
Meckel, M., Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C. & Poëll, R. (2014). Social Media Readiness in der Verwaltung : Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel der Verwaltung der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg. Abschlussbericht. Hamburg : ISPRAT (Interdisziplinäre Studien zu Politik, Recht, Administration und Technologie e. V.).

Abschlussbericht - Soziale Medien werden heute in der Verwaltung kaum genutzt. Auch privat nutzen Mitarbeitende der Verwaltung neue Medien unterdurchschnittlich häufig. Vertrauen in die eigenen Nutzungsfähigkeiten fördert die Bereitschaft zur Nutzung stark, Sorgen um die Privatsphäre im Netz senken sie dagegen. Der Arbeitgeber kann die Offenheit der Mitarbeitenden gegenüber sozialen Medien beeinflussen: Führungsunterstützung und Ermunterung durch Kollegen fördern die Nutzungsbereitschaft. Das sind die Ergebnisse des ISPRAT-Projekts "Social Media Readiness in der Verwaltung", durchgeführt vom Institut für Medien und Kommunikationsmanagement (MCM) der Universität St. Gallen in Zusammenarbeit mit der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg. Alle Mitarbeitenden der Hamburger Verwaltung mit PC-Arbeitsplatz wurden zu einer Umfrage eingeladen. 2.092 Verwaltungsmitarbeitende aus allen Behörden und Bezirksämtern nahmen teil. Analysiert wurden die private und die berufliche Nutzung neuer Medien. Ausserdem wurde untersucht, welche persönlichen und organisationalen Einflüsse die Bereitschaft zur Nutzung sozialer Medien prägen.

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Christian Pieter Hoffmann & Christoph Lutz
To trust or not to trust? : Developing a scale for measuring online trust cues
Hoffmann, C. P. & Lutz, C. (2013). To trust or not to trust? : Developing a scale for measuring online trust cues. Paper presented at 73rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management. USA, Lake Buena Vista, August 2013.

Trust is as a key success factor for online business, especially in the earliest stage of a business relationship, when users transact with a service for the first time. Among the drivers of online trust identified in the literature are features of the online business that signal its trustworthiness to potential users, i.e. trust cues. Although there are well established scales to measure (online) trust and many of its antecedents, such instruments are lacking when it comes to trust cues. We attempt to fill this gap by systematically developing a scale that measures and distinguishes core cues impacting the formation of online trust. The scale development is based on data collected in a survey of 1'549 German Internet users. Exploratory factor analysis of a broad item pool identified six cues: Website Design & Reputation, Information Practices, Privacy Assurances, Customer Service, Service Benefits, and Offline Presence. Confirmatory methods (CFA, SEM) are then employed to scrutinize the validity of the scale. The analysis results in a set of 38 items which capture the six cues, show sufficient validity and describe a wide spectrum of possible cues. Finally, a reduced version of the scale containing only 29 items is provided.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz, Miriam Meckel & Giulia Ranzini
An Element of Surprise : The Impact of Serendipity on Online Trust
Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C., Meckel, M. & Ranzini, G. (2013). An Element of Surprise : The Impact of Serendipity on Online Trust. Paper presented at 73rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management. USA, Lake Buena Vista, August 2013.

The importance of user trust in online business is well-established in theory and practice. At the same time, the Internet is a dynamic space with constantly evolving user experiences based on new technological developments. A current example of such a development is the increasing use of algorithms in search and recommendation systems. Critics claim that these algorithms limit the users' Web experience and their ability to come across new and surprising, even challenging insights ("serendipity"). We propose that these developments have an impact on online trust and explore the effect of serendipity on trust formation as well as the role of privacy and security on serendipitous Web uses. Based on a large-scale representative survey among Swiss Internet users, we analyze a quantitative model of privacy perception, serendipity and trust on the Internet. We find that service providers suffering from a lack of trust need to weigh the benefits of a tightly controlled and efficient user experience against those of a more curious, explorative, trusting and less protective customer behavior.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann & Christoph Lutz
The Impact of Social Media on Stakeholder Engagement
Hoffmann, C. P. & Lutz, C. (2013). The Impact of Social Media on Stakeholder Engagement. In: Governance Through Communication: Stakeholder Engagement, Dialogue, and Corporate Social Responsibility. Paper presented at the Annual ICA Preconference. UK, Edinburgh, June 2013.

Online tools such as social media provide new opportunities for citizens and stakeholder groups to be informed, identify common interests, express and share opinions and demands, organize, and coordinate interventions. Therefore, the Internet could be expected to be a powerful tool for corporations' stakeholder engagement efforts. In order to provide an overview of current findings on the impact of new digital media on stakeholder engagement, we conduct a systematic literature review. Our analysis reveals five topical categories of inquiry, which we term political/civic, business, cultural, health, and education participation. We analyze studies from the field of business participation and find a strong bias towards consumer engagement and marketing issues. Only few studies are found to critically explore the effect of online media on power and value distribution between corporations and stakeholders. We then turn to the more established field of political and civic participation in order to further analyze antecedents, forms and outcomes of online participation. Finally, we derive propositions for future research into online stakeholder engagement.

Christoph Lutz & Christian Pieter Hoffmann
Open Up the Research Gate : Networking and Researching Communities on Academic Social Network Sites
Lutz, C. & Hoffmann, C. P. (2013). Open Up the Research Gate : Networking and Researching Communities on Academic Social Network Sites. Paper presented at the XXXIII Sunbelt Social Networks Conference. Germany, Hamburg, May 2013. 

Academic social network sites (SNS) have gained enormous ground over the last years. The biggest services ResearchGate, Mendeley and Academia.edu all have much more than 1 million members and the numbers are rapidly increasing. However, only limited research has been carried out on social media in science (Nentwich & König, 2012). Although a vivid community creates and implements alternative measures of scientific impact with social media data (Altmetrics; Priem & Hemminger, 2011), little use has been made of academic SNS to analyze scientific communities.
Our aim is twofold: Firstly, we outline the state of research on and with scientific SNS. We show how such data is useful both to enhance our knowledge in the sociology of science and for practical purposes. Secondly, we present preliminary results of a research project with ResearchGate. Drawing on data from this SNS we describe the scholarly network of the Business Innovation area of the University of St. Gallen.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Social Media Readiness in Public Administration : Developing a Research Framework
Hoffmann C. P., Lutz, C. & Meckel, M. (2013). Social Media Readiness in Public Administration : Developing a Research Framework. Paper presented at XVII IRSPM Conference. Czech Republic, Prague, April 2013.

This paper develops a multi-level model of Social Media Readiness (SMR) in public administration. Social Media Readiness is described as the extent to which an individual, group or organization is willing, able and prepared to use social media for professional purposes. We survey literature that potentially informs our understanding of SMR. In order to develop a model that is both tailored to the specific context of public administration, and sufficiently represents the complexity of the phenomenon, we conducted an explorative study in late 2011, based on eight case studies within a German state administration. We analyzed social media initiatives in order to identify antecedents of SMR based on the perspectives and experiences of public employees involved in such projects. Finally, we substantiate the resulting model based on established theories of technology acceptance, digital divide, trust, innovation diffusion and public entrepreneurship in order to propose a, both, empirically and theoretically founded framework for future research into social media readiness in public administration.

Christoph Lutz, Christian Pieter Hoffmann & Andrea von Kaenel
Perception is Reality : The Impact of Buyer and Seller Attributes on Online Trust
Lutz, C., Hoffmann, C. P. & von Kaenel, A. (2013). Perception is Reality : The Impact of Buyer and Seller Attributes on Online Trust. In Vollmar, J., Becker, R. & Hoffend, I. (Hrsg.). Macht des Vertrauens: Perspektiven Und Aktuelle Herausforderungen Im Unternehmerischen Kontext (S. 185-209). Wiesbaden : Gabler.

With the growth of e-business and large numbers of people engaging in online  shopping, trust has been identified as a crucial topic in information systems and marketing research. Because online transactions are mostly anonymous and always computer-mediated, mutual trust is needed for their execution. A range of factors have been shown to inluence trust formation in online transactions, both attributes of the buyer as well as the seller. This study analyses and diferentiates between the impact of both perceived seller attributes (brand strength, perception of reciprocity, customer control and third party endorsements) and buyer attributes (age, gender, and web experience) on online trust based on a representative survey of the German online population. Our analysis reveals that seller attributes, as perceived by the buyer, have a stronger impact on online trust than buyer characteristics.

Christoph Lutz & Christian Pieter Hoffmann
Open Data and Social Media
Lutz, C. & Hoffmann, C. P. (2012). Open Data and Social Media. 1st Open Data Dialog. Berlin, 2012.

The presentation shows parallels between social media implementation and open data projects in public administration settings, using as an example a research project in cooperation with the city of Hamburg and funded by ISPRAT. It proposes a multilevel perspective and combines organizational as well as individual drivers of social media readiness within a holistic framework.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Andrea von Kaenel, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants : Differences in Online Trust Formation
Hoffmann, C. P., von Kaenel, A., Lutz, C. & Meckel, M. (2012). Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants: Differences in Online Trust Formation. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1, 1-6.

Online applications support and affect an extensive variety of today's social and business interactions. Trust has been identified as a key prerequisite for the acceptance and adoption of online services or applications. Research has come a long way in exploring antecedents and drivers of online trust. A range of authors have hypothesized that user characteristics, such as web experience and demographics, impact online trust formation. Based upon a survey among German internet users, we differentiate two user groups, Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants, and find significant differences in their trust formation. While Digital Natives look for a balance in perceived risk and benefit as well as convincing third party endorsements when choosing an online service, Digital Immigrants are more interested in large, well-established providers with a recognizable offline presence.

Christian Pieter Hoffmann, Andrea von Kaenel, Christoph Lutz & Miriam Meckel
Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants : Differences in Online Trust Formation
Hoffmann C. P., von Kaenel, A., Lutz C. & Meckel, M. (2012). Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants : Differences in Online Trust Formation. Paper presented at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management. USA, Boston, August 2012.

Online applications support and affect an extensive variety of today's social and business interactions. Trust has been identified as a key prerequisite for the acceptance and adoption of online services or applications. Research has come a long way in exploring antecedents and drivers of online trust. A range of authors have hypothesized that user characteristics, such as web experience and demographics, impact online trust formation. Based upon a survey among German internet users, we differentiate two user groups, "Digital Natives" and "Digital Immigrants", and find significant differences in their trust formation. While "Digital Natives" look for a balance in perceived risk and benefit as well as convincing third party endorsements when choosing an online service, "Digital Immigrants" are more interested in large, well-established providers with a recognizable offline presence

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